SCIENCE of
CLIMATE CHANGE

International Journal of Science and Philosophy

The Holocene climate change story: Witnessed from Sola, Norway. Part 2

Author

  • Martin Hovland, MSc PhD, FGS

Part 2: Transition from interglacial (Eem) to glaciation (Weichsel), to the current interglacial (warm) period, Holocene, including changing sea-levels: regressions and transgressions.

Introduction

The municipality of Sola (58° 55’ N, 5° 40’ E; see Part 1, Fig. 1) located in Rogaland County, coastal Norway has a long and rich history of archaeological finds that date back to when Norway was first populated, immediately after the Weichselian glaciation, and was followed by a warmer climate that continued until about 12,800 years BP, at which time a new glaciation advance took place – the Younger Dryas (YD) period. This 1100-year-long, brutally cold period led to a sudden halt and advance of the retreating inland glacier, followed by a new climate change that led to a new retreat of the glacier. An abundance of moraine ridges had then been deposited at the terminal glacier front in all of Scandinavia and Siberia, referred to as the ‘Younger Dryas Line’ (Mangerud, 2021). The further retreat of the glacier continued during the next 2000 – 2500 years after the YD period, but with several shorter and longer stays. These stops in the retreat led to the formation of new moraine ridges along the glacier front, especially where the ocean followed the retreating glacier. The material in these ridges is dominantly fluvioglacial sediments (gravel and sand) while silt and clay deposited further out in the sea. The retreat of the glacier can be followed to approximately 9400 years BP, at which time the remains of the inland glacier became stagnant and melted away as ‘dead ice’. The nearest YD terminal ridge to Sola, occurs in the Lysefjord, about 30 km inland.

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The Holocene climate change story: Witnessed from Sola, Norway. Part 2

Description

Author

  • Martin Hovland, MSc PhD, FGS

Part 2: Transition from interglacial (Eem) to glaciation (Weichsel), to the current interglacial (warm) period, Holocene, including changing sea-levels: regressions and transgressions.

Introduction

The municipality of Sola (58° 55’ N, 5° 40’ E; see Part 1, Fig. 1) located in Rogaland County, coastal Norway has a long and rich history of archaeological finds that date back to when Norway was first populated, immediately after the Weichselian glaciation, and was followed by a warmer climate that continued until about 12,800 years BP, at which time a new glaciation advance took place – the Younger Dryas (YD) period. This 1100-year-long, brutally cold period led to a sudden halt and advance of the retreating inland glacier, followed by a new climate change that led to a new retreat of the glacier. An abundance of moraine ridges had then been deposited at the terminal glacier front in all of Scandinavia and Siberia, referred to as the ‘Younger Dryas Line’ (Mangerud, 2021). The further retreat of the glacier continued during the next 2000 – 2500 years after the YD period, but with several shorter and longer stays. These stops in the retreat led to the formation of new moraine ridges along the glacier front, especially where the ocean followed the retreating glacier. The material in these ridges is dominantly fluvioglacial sediments (gravel and sand) while silt and clay deposited further out in the sea. The retreat of the glacier can be followed to approximately 9400 years BP, at which time the remains of the inland glacier became stagnant and melted away as ‘dead ice’. The nearest YD terminal ridge to Sola, occurs in the Lysefjord, about 30 km inland.

Link to Part 1: The Holocene climate change story witnessed from Sola. Part 1